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Titan

LOCKHEED-MARTIN

The Titan family was established in October 1955 when the U.S. Air Force awarded the then, Martin Company, a contract to build a heavy-duty space system. It became known as the Titan I, the nation's first two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile and first underground silo-based ICBM.

The Titan launch vehicle is based on the Titan 2 intercontinental ballistic missile, which entered service in the early 1960's, as was retired from service in mid-1987. Thirteen of these ICBM's are being converted into space launch vehicles, and more of the remaining 43 ICBM's may also be converted. The Titan 3B, which is no longer operational, is similar to the Titan 2, with the addition of a small upper stage. There are also a variety of Titan space launch vehicles that use a liquid propellant core vehicle, based on the Titan 2, with the addition of strap-on solid rocket motors.

The Titan family of expendable launch vehicles gained a new lease on life in the wake of the Challenger accident. Previous plans which called for the termination of launch activity by the early 1988 were revised, and the Titan continued in operation through the middle of the next decade. The Titan 4 is a new version of the Titan with a longer liquid propellant tanks in the first stage, and with larger solid motors.

History

The first significant Air Force step toward creation of a space launching system suitable for future military requirements occurred on 6 November 1959 with publication of a plan for a "Military Booster Development Program." The plan offered a projection of a theoretical launch vehicle system designated, for the sake of identification, as "Phoenix." This effort was followed, on 4 January 1960, by another study entitled, "Air Force Space Systems Program," which carried the Phoenix idea several steps forward by defining potential space systems of primary interest and projecting the precise techniques and performance capabilities needed to make these systems possible. The basic thesis of the Phoenix effort was to devise a space launching system of wide versatility and low cost. Development of segmented solid motors for first stage application and continued development of liquid engines for upper stages was the crux of the Phoenix study.(1)

By mid-July 1961 the Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group, headed by Dr. N.E. Golovin of NASA, and including representatives from NASA, DoD and the Air Force was assigned the responsibility for developing a detailed projection of the total national space program. One of the most popular approaches to emerge was that "building blocks" might be used in suitable combinations to perform a wide variety of missions. Applying this concept to the Titan II resulted in definition of a basic "core" to which component building blocks could be added to create a high performance vehicle. In November 1961 the Golovin Committee recommended development of the Titan III for carrying out post-1963 launches for the Defense Department.(2)

The Titan III launch vehicle was the result of an effort by military planners to increase low orbit payload weight to 25,000 pounds, establish a high degree of standardization, and provide significantly greater economies of operation, using a vehicle assembled from standard building blocks and possessing high reliability and mission flexibility. The choice for the core was Titan II, most powerful American ICBM. The concept grew to include a new pressure fed third stage topped by a control module and a standard payload fairing. This basic "core, " designated Titan IIIA, would be capable of lofting significant payload weights-5,800 pounds into a low (100 nautical mile) circular orbit or 3,600 pounds into a 1,000 nautical mile circular orbit. The technically unique element of the system was the addition of solid propellant motors to vastly augment an otherwise nominal payload capacity.(3)

The Titan III designation was initially used in mid-1959 for a two stage 160-inch diameter non-cryogenic missile (with a Centaur third stage) as a successor to Titan II with a capability of fulfilling the Saturn space mission.(4) Initially there was no specific role for Titan III, apart from the X-20 Dyna Soar. The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) became a candidate in December 1963.(5)

Titan III was based on a design concept which called for full exploitation of existing technology. The first stage of the core was a modified Titan II stage with simplified propulsion and electrical systems. The Aerojet-General LR-87 first stage engine differed from the Titan II engine in having an altitude start capability and insulation around the engine compartment to protect against heat radiated by the solid motors. Like the first stage, the second stage was essentially a variation on Titan II design, with a reinforced structure and more reliable propulsion.(6)

Motors of Titan III size and thrust had never been manufactured and tested. The design for each motor was fixed at five interchangeable 121 inch diameter segments plus forward and aft closures. At the end of World War II solid propellant rockets, while used in some minor weapons applications, were still in their development infancy. But during the 1950's solid propellant technology accumulated gains in metallurgy, chemistry and high temperature materials. By 1957 large solid rocket motors up to 60 inches in diameter, containing as much as 25,000 pounds of propellant, had been assembled and successfully fired. Contracts were awarded for an advanced "second generation" intercontinental ballistic missile, the Minuteman. The Navy was developing the Polaris solid propellant intermediate range missile at about the same time. Validity of the concept was demonstrated on 1 September 1959 when the first large size solid propellant, flight weight motor, over 24 feet long and over five feet in diameter, weighing over 50,000 pounds, was successfully fired. Despite the engineering effort involved in the development of Minuteman, the "breakthrough" idea of segmented motors held the potential to create motors of massive size. A segmented solid motor was made of huge single-castings (grains) stacked on top of each other, with the ends knocked out and in a single casing made by bolting together the several segment walls. In March 1959 Wright Air Development Center's Solid Rocket Branch (Power Plant Laboratory) at Edwards Air Force Base invited industry to bid on demonstrating a segmented solid motor, with a contract awarded on 5 August 1960. Aerojet demonstrated the first such rocket motor on 3 June 1961 -- a 100 inch diameter single center segment motor which delivered 450,000 pounds of thrust for 45 seconds. On 29 August a two segment motor delivered 460,000 pounds of thrust and operated for 67 seconds. These were the highest thrust performances so far recorded for any solid propellant motor. United Technology Corporation continued privately funded development and testing of a single-segment, 256,000 pound thrust motor and a two-segment, 482,000 pound thrust motor. The segmented solid motor concept, new high performance solid propellants, and lightweight materials promised large gains in space vehicle performance. Technical evolution merged with military necessity to create the combined solid-liquid propulsion techniques utilized in the Titan III launch vehicle.(7)

Previous Evolution(8)

Like the Delta and Atlas, the Titan has a long history of modification and change that led to its current configuration. The Titan launch vehicle was developed under the management of the Air Force Systems Command, Space Division. The program objective was to design a launch system to cover a comprehensive spectrum of future missions without the inherent problems of a tailored launch vehicle. The solution, achieved through optimizing existing technology, was a set of building blocks that could be combined to produce a variety of useful launch vehicle configurations.

The basic element in Titan vehicles is the two-stage liquid rocket core (Stages 1 and 2). Additional thrust during the boost phase can be provided by two solid rocket motors (SRM) attached to the core (Stage 0). Various upper stages (Stage 3 and up) allow for mission and flight plan flexibility to meet specific payload requirements.

Titan I - Martin Marietta Astronautics Group has actively engaged in missile and space programs since 1955. The first program was the Titan I intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), a two-stage missile developed and deployed as a weapon system. Development began in 1955 and the first launch occurred in February 1959. The last launch was in March 1965.

Titan II was Martin Marietta's second ICBM program. Development began in 1960 with the first launch in March 1962 and the last launch in June 1976. Titan II was the first strategic missile that used storable hyperbolic propellants and an inertial guidance system. This weapon system was deployed in 1962 with deactivation completed in 1987.

Titan/Gemini The Titan II ICBM was converted into the Titan/Gemini space launch vehicle (SLV) by man-rating critical systems. It served as a significant stepping stone in the evolution of the US manned spaceflight program using expendable launch vehicles, culminating in the Apollo program. Twelve successful Gemini launches occurred between April 1964 and November 1966.

Titan II SLV After the Titan II weapon system was deactivated by the US government and the Air Force contracted with Martin Marietta to refurbish and modify the Titan II to serve as an SLV for use with single DOD payloads launched from the Western Space and Missile Center WSMC. The program goal was to make maximum use of Titan II weapon system resources and cause minimum modifications to the launch site, while incurring minimum costs and maintaining a high level of mission success.

Titan IIIA was a two-stage liquid-propellant vehicle that employed two solid-propellant motors to augment the thrust capability of the basic vehicle during lift-off. When a vehicle is launched without the solid-propellant motor, using only the two liquid stages, it is known as a core-only vehicle. Development of a third generation Titan began in 1961 when the need for a larger payload capability became evident. Titan IIIA flew four development missions, then was integrated into the IIIC configuration.

Titan IIIB used radio guidance with a 5-ft diameter Agena upper stage and payload fairing (PLF), the Ascent Agena upper stage with strapdown guidance and a 10-ft PLF, and a stretched core with the same two upper stages and PLFs for low-Earth orbits (LEO) from WSMC. The last launch of the Titan IIIB core-only vehicle from the Western Space and Missile Center in the mid-1970s.

Titan IIIC/Transtage, with other various upper stages, achieved greater mission and flight plan flexibility. It flew from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Some flights involved four to eight payloads that were integrated from as many as three different payload sources.

Transtage was designed, developed, and built for a variety of space operations. It incorporates guidance, attitude control, structures, thermal control, tracking, power, instrumentation, propulsion, range safety, retrorockets, and payload delivery subsystems. This flexible space system has carried out missions involving ballistic, low-orbit insertion, synchronous equatorial orbit insertion, orbit trim, orbit transfer, orbital plane change, and multiple payload separation maneuvers. The Eastern Space and Missile Center was the site of its last launching in 1982.

Titan IIID, launched from the Western Space and Missile Center, was similar to the Titan IIIC. Since it did not use an upper stage, its avionics were transferred to stage I and 11.

Titan IIIE was adapted for interplanetary non-DOD use at Eastern Space and Missile Center (ESMC), included a Centaur D-lT upper stage with a 14-ft diameter PLF. Similar to the Titan IIID, the biggest difference was the inertial guidance system's replacement of the radio guidance, packaged in the Centaur D-IT upper stage. It successfully boosted two Viking spacecraft to Mars; two Voyagers to Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus; and two HELIOS spacecraft to explore inside Mercury's orbit. The last launch of the Titan IIIE took place at the Eastern Space and Missile Center in 1977.

Titan IIIM was designed to launch the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) from the Western Space and Missile Center. Although President Johnson canceled the MOL program, the design for the IIIM was the forerunner of the fourth generation Titan, the Titan 34 series.

Titan 34B had an improved guidance system, increased structural capability to support heavier payloads, a stretched core, and a larger payload fairing system that allowed more space for larger payloads.

Titan 34D was developed to provide the Air Force with an orderly transition from expendable launch vehicles to the Space Shuttle and to provide backup to the Shuttle. Titan 34D used the Inertial Upper Stage in its first launch in 1982, from the Eastern Space and Missile Center. Since the Titan 34D used larger solid propellant motors than the Titan IIID, it had a payload capability that makes it the largest launch vehicle in both size and capability. It weighs 689,300 kilograms at lift-off and generated 12,998 kilonewtons of thrust. (Space Transportation System). The Titan 34D series stretched-core configurations was the most advanced of the Titan family. The Titan 34D used the stretched core of the Titan 34B with 5-1/2 segment SRMs, and has been integrated with several launch vehicle upper stage, PLF, and guidance configurations. The 34D has since evolved into the Titan IV, which provided greater DOD lifting capability.

Commercial Titan III launch vehicle was an upgraded version of the Titan 34D. The enhanced performance upgrades included using the liquid fuel engines used on the Titan IV; stretching Stage 2 17 in.; and incorporating the dual payload carrier. The Commercial Titan was deployed for single and dual payload missions to LEO.

Commercial Titan III-Transtage was a three-stage vehicle using the Transtage, which was developed for the US Air Force space missions. Stages 0, I, and II are identical to those on the Commercial Titan except that the Stage II forward skirt is stretched to accommodate the Transtage propellant tanks and engines, and the avionics system and attitude control system (ACS) are removed from Stage II and placed in Transtage. The Transtage ensures engine restart in a zero-gravity environment. The Commercial Titan m-Transtage was deployed for single and dual payload missions to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO).

Current Capabilities

Titan 2

Martin Marietta is refurbishing and modifying decommissioned Titan 2 ICBMs for use as space launch vehicles. The company was awarded a contract in January of 1986 -- that runs through September 1995 -- to refurbish fourteen vehicles. Tasks involved in converting the Titan Il ICBMs into space launch vehicles include modifying the forward structure of the second stage to accommodate a 10-foot-diameter payload fairing with variable lengths; manufacturing the new fairing plus payload adapters; refurbishing the Titan's liquid rocket engines; upgrading the inertial guidance system; developing command, destruct and telemetry systems; modifying Vandenberg Air Force Base Launch Complex-4 West to conduct the launches; and performing payload integration.

Deactivation of the Titan II ICBM system began in July 1982 and was completed in June 1987. Deactivated missiles are in storage at Norton Air Force Base in San Bernardino, California. Martin Marietta is responsible for transporting the Titan 11 ICBMs from California to its facilities near Denver, Colorado, for refurbishment.

The Titan 11 space launch vehicle consists of two stages, a payload adapter, and a payload fairing. Designed to provide a low-to-medium-weight launch capability into low-polar orbit, it will be able to lift about 4,800 pounds into a 100 nautical mile circular orbit. The Air Force successfully launched the first Titan 2 space launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on 5 September 1988.

Titan 4(9)

The Titan IV is the newest and largest unmanned space booster used by the Air Force. The Titan IV is a heavy lift rocket booster that will assure continued access to space for the nation's highest priority space systems, such as Defense Support Program and Milstar satellites. It is complementary to the Space Transportation System in payload volume and performance, and capable of supporting launches at both WSMC and ESMC.

The Titan IV system evolved from the basic family of Titan systems, namely the Titan IIIB, C, D, E, and 34D, which have contributed to national space objectives for more than 25 years. The Titan IV, a derivative of the versatile Titan III family, is similar to the Titan 34D. Both the first and second stages have been stretched, and an additional one and a half segments have been added to each of the strap-on solid rocket motors. The 16.7-foot-wide payload fairing will enclose both the satellite and upper stage.

The Titan IV consists of a liquid propellant core of two stages with a pair of large solid rocket motors (SRM) attached to the core to provide the initial stage of boost from liftoff. Stage 0 currently consists of two solid-rocket motors which provide 1.5 million pounds (675,000 kilograms) per motor at liftoff. The Titan IV'S first stage consists of an LR-87 liquid-propellant rocket that features structurally independent tanks for its fuel (Aerozine 50) and oxidizer (Nitrogen Tetroxide). This minimizes the hazard of the two mixing if a leak should develop in either tank. Additionally, the engines' propellant can be stored in a launch-ready state for extended periods. The use of propellants stored at normal temperature and pressure eliminates delays and gives the Titan IV the capability to meet critical launch windows. The Stage 1 LR-87 engines have an average of 548,000 pounds (246,600 kilograms). Stage 2 uses the LR-91 liquid-propellant engine with an average of 105,000 pounds (47,250 kilograms).

While a variety of upper stages may be compatible with the booster, the two upper stages baselined for use on the Titan IV are the Boeing Aerospace Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and the (formerly General Dynamics) Centaur Titan/Centaur-G.

Titan 401 with the Centaur-G upper stage is launched from Cape Canaveral Pad 40. Payload fairings can range in length from 66 to 86 feet. When configured with the Centaur, a single stage liquid propellant restartable upper stage, which provides 33,100 pounds (14,895 kilograms) of thrust, the Titan IV/Centaur is capable of placing a 10,000-pound payload into Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO).

Titan 402 with the IUS upper stage which is launched from Cape Canaveral can put 38,784 pounds into an 80 X 95 nm low Earth orbit at a 28.5 degree inclination. The Titan IV/IUS configuration, which provides up to 41,500 pounds (18,675 kilograms) of thrust, is capable of placing a 2,360 kilograms (5,250 pounds) payload into GEO.

Titan 403 is a Titan 4 with no upper stage (NUS) launched from Vandenberg AFB. It has a 66-foot payload fairing and is be able to put 32,160 Ib. into a 100-nm circular orbit from Vandenberg. When configured without an upper stage (NUS), the Titan IV/NUS can place a 17,550 kilograms (39,000 pounds) into a 144 kilometers (90 miles) orbit when launched from Cape Canaveral; The 403 configuration launched from the West Coast is the same as the 405 version launched from Cape Canaveral.

Titan 404 is a Vandenberg configuration with no upper stage. The payload fairing size and orbital parameters are secret. Payload capacity is 29,800 pounds.

Titan 405 is a Titan 4 with no upper stage (NUS) launched from Vandenberg AFB. It has a 66-foot payload fairing and is be able to put 32,160 Ib. into a 100-nm circular orbit and up to 13,950 kilograms (31,000 pounds) 160 kilometers polar orbit when launched from Vandenberg. The 403 configuration launched from the West Coast is the same as the 405 version launched from Cape Canaveral.

Overall length is up to 204 feet (61.2 meters), with a maximum takeoff weight of approximately 1,900,000 pounds (2,855,000 kilograms).

Development of the Titan IV program was in direct response to a National Security Decision Directive. The initial contract for development, qualification, and production of 10 Titan IVs with Centaur upper stages was awarded in February 1985. This contract included the activation and operation of a single Titan IV/Centaur launch facility at Cape Canaveral AFB, FL (CCAFS).

As a result of the January 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger accident, the Department of Defense (DOD) embarked on a recovery plan which included the acquisition of 13 additional Titan IV boosters, activation and operation of an existing Titan launch pad at Vandenberg AFB, CA (VAFB), the design and development of a new Titan/Centaur launch pad at VAFB and Space Transportation System (STS)/Titan IV dual compatibility for some AF satellites launched from CCAFS. The resulting 23-vehicle Titan IV program was placed on contract in December 1987, and was-structured to account for the impacts of the April 1986 Titan 34D accident and the June 1986 NASA/Centaur cancellation.

Progress made by the core contractor allowed delivery of the first core to CCAFS ahead of schedule. However, delays in deliveries of the payload fairing and solid rocket motors caused a delay in delivery of the final vehicle components from February to April 1988.

The delay in the Titan IV/NUS WTR ILC at VAFB to December 1990 was caused by the requirement for additional electrical modifications to the Mobile Service Tower (MST) and the need to complete ground systems tests. The Titan IV/NUS WTR ILC was subsequently achieved two months early in October 1990.

The initial Centaur ILC structural test (July 1989) was completed in November 1989. Additional Centaur tests were completed in April 1991. The delayed launch of the first Titan IV caused a slip in the T-IV/Centaur ILC due to derived scheduling conflicts. A further slip occurred from August 1991 to November 1991 due to a launch delay of Titan IV-6. The delay impacted facility modifications necessary for Centaur. An additional slip from August 1991 to November 1991 due to Centaur separation ring redesign and test in preparation for the ILC and a May 1991 Atlas Centaur flight failure (AC-70). A further slip from November 1991 to February 1992 resulted from additional inspections for contaminations resulting from the Commercial Atlas/Centaur (AC-70) failure investigation. The next slip from February 1992 to December 1992 was due to an acceptance test failure of the Digital Computer Unit. The next slip from December 1992 to June 1993 was due to assessment of the August 1992 AC-71 failure and user direction.

DOD later embarked on an increased capacity plan which included the modification of an additional launch pad at CCAFS, the acquisition of 18 additional Titan IV boosters and associated facility and plant enhancements. The current 41-vehicle program was definitized in December 1989.

The first Titan IV was successfully launched in June 1989 from CCAFS. Two successful launches were conducted during 1990. Two additional successful launches were conducted during 1991 (including the first VAFB launch), and one during 1992.

A Titan IV vehicle launched from VAFB on 2 August 1993 experienced a failure. The subsequent investigation indicated that a burn through on one of the SRMs caused the failure. Corrective actions were implemented to allow launch operations to resume in February 1994.

Titan IV/Centaur ILC was successfully achieved during September 1993. This date had slipped from February 1993 to June 1993 due to implementation of the AC-71 failure fixes. The August 1992 AC-71 duplicated the April 1991 AC-70 failure, even though the cause had been thought corrected. In both cases the C-1 engine turbopump failed to rotate and allow the engine to bootstrap, though in both cases both engines ignited properly. Titan/Centaur successfully launched the first Milstar satellite from CCAFS on 7 February 1994.

SRMU Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade

The Hercules Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade, a new light-weight graphite-epoxy solid rocket motor, will add 25 percent additional carrying capability, boosting Titan IV's lift capacity to LEO from 40,000 pounds to 48,000 pounds. Originally planned to be operational by 1990, the first SRMU-equipped Titan, the K-24 vehicle, is scheduled for Fiscal 1997.

Titan 401 with the Centaur-G upper stage payload capability with the Hercules Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) increases to 13,560 pounds into geosynchronous orbit.

Titan 402 with the IUS upper stage with SRMU is launched from Cape Canaveral can put 50,000 pounds into an 80 X 95 nm low Earth orbit at a 28.5 degree inclination.

Titan 403 is a Titan 4 with no upper stage (NUS) launched from Vandenberg AFB. It has a 66-foot payload fairing. With the new Hercules booster, the payload mass goes to 41,400 Ib. into a 100-nm circular orbit from Vandenberg. The 403 configuration launched from the West Coast is the same as the 405 version launched from Cape Canaveral.

Titan 404 is a Vandenberg configuration with no upper stage. The payload fairing size and orbital parameters are secret. Payload capacity with SRMU is 36,700 Ib.

Titan 405 is a Titan 4 with no upper stage (NUS) launched from Vandenberg AFB. It has a 66-foot payload fairing. With the new Hercules booster, the payload mass goes to 41,400 Ib. into a 100-nm circular orbit from Vandenberg. The 403 configuration launched from the West Coast is the same as the 405 version launched from Cape Canaveral.

The development of a new Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU), planned for completion in 1997, will provide increased reliability, producibility, and performance, giving the Titan IV 25 percent more carrying capability. The Centaur structural limit is 11.5 K-lbs. Payload to GEO for Titan IV Centaur/SRMU could be increased with structural modifications to the Centaur. No current direction or funding exists to modify the Centaur for increased capability. Demonstrated performance is based on test and analysis data for yet-to-be launched vehicle configurations (SRMU).(10)

A crane accident in September 1990 at Edwards AFB damaged the test stand, delaying the PQM-1 test until April 1991, and delayed the SRMU ILC to May 1992. On 1 April 1991, an explosion occurred during the static firing test of the SRMU Preliminary Qualification Motor No. 1 (PQM-1). This test accident caused significant damage to the test facility and required a modification of the SRMU propellant grain configuration.(11)

After extensive analysis, it was determined that the failure resulted from a design flaw in the solid propellant grain, causing a critical failure where the solid rocket motor segments are joined. After extensive modelling, the grain was redesigned and the problem corrected. A critical design review was completed in February 1992 and a retest of the first motor was scheduled for April 1992 on the rebuilt test stand.(12)

The SRMU static firing (PQM-1') slipped from February 1991 to April 1992 because of the SRMU PQM-1 test explosion. The PQM-1 test failure also delayed the SRMU ILC from May 1992 to August 1993. The SRMU static firing (PQM-1') slipped from April 1992 to May 1992 due to production schedule delays for the test "aft skirt" which is the attachment between the SRMU and the test stand. The SRMU static firing (PQM-1') further slipped from May to June 1992 due to weather conditions (i.e. winds) at the test site. PQM-1' was successfully tested on 12 June 1992, and was followed by four additional successful qualification motor firings through September 1993. The fifth and final SRMU qualification test was conducted in September 1993. SRMU casting began in November 1993, and the first SRMU flightset was delivered during March 1994. The SRMU ILC was delayed from August 1993 to July 1994 due to further delays in the qualification test program. Hercules subcontractor experienced unexpected problems during the R&D phase of the SRMU Program such as the determination of higher than expected vibration environments. SRMU ILC has been delayed from July 1994 to July 1996 due to delays in the development of the Flight Termination System (FTS).(13)

Hercules Corp., the developer of the SRMU, filed a lawsuit against Martin Marietta Corp., the prime contractor for the Titan IV. The suit sought $450 million in damages from Martin Marietta for breach of Martin's obligation to cooperate and not interfere with Hercules' performance of its subcontract. Further, Hercules contended it should be excused from performance of its subcontract and that it should be compensated for Martin's failure to consummate a follow-on buy with the Air Force for 10 ship-sets. Martin Marietta filed a counter suit for $100 million for failure to perform.(14)



GIF Photo - Click to view JPEG GIF Photo - Click to view JPEG TITAN RETURNS TO FLIGHT - A Titan IVB launches from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Friday, April 9, 1999.


References

1. Adapted from: Robert F. Piper, History of Titan III -- 1961-1963, (Air Force Space Systems Division Historical Division, June 1964), pages 10, 15.

2. Adapted from: Robert F. Piper, History of Titan III -- 1961-1963, (Air Force Space Systems Division Historical Division, June 1964), pages 22, 40.

3. Adapted from: Robert F. Piper, History of Titan III -- 1961-1963, (Air Force Space Systems Division Historical Division, June 1964), page 118.

4. Adapted from: Robert F. Piper, History of Titan III -- 1961-1963, (Air Force Space Systems Division Historical Division, June 1964), page 25.

5. Adapted from: Robert F. Piper, History of Titan III -- 1961-1963, (Air Force Space Systems Division Historical Division, June 1964), page viii.

6. Adapted from: Robert F. Piper, History of Titan III -- 1961-1963, (Air Force Space Systems Division Historical Division, June 1964), page 120.

7. Adapted from: Robert F. Piper, History of Titan III -- 1961-1963, (Air Force Space Systems Division Historical Division, June 1964), pages 126-128.

8. Adapted from: Air Command and Staff College (Lt Col Curtis D. Cochran, Lt Col Dennis M. Gorman, Maj Joseph D. Dumoulin {editors}), Space Handbook - AU-18, (Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, January 1985); and

Martin Marietta Commercial Titan, Inc. Titan III Commercial Launch Services Customer Handbook, (Issue no. 1, December 1987, Denver, Colorado), Appendix A.

9. Adapted from: Space and Missile Systems Center, "Titan IV Selected Acquisition Report," (RCS:DD-COMP(Q&A)823), 31 December 1993.

10. Adapted from: Space and Missile Systems Center, "Titan IV Selected Acquisition Report," (RCS:DD-COMP(Q&A)823), 31 December 1993.

11. Adapted from: Space and Missile Systems Center, "Titan IV Selected Acquisition Report," (RCS:DD-COMP(Q&A)823), 31 December 1993.

12. Adapted from: Testimony by Lt. Gen. John E. Jaquish, principal deputy, assistant secretary of the Air Force (acquisition) and Maj. Gen. Donald G. Hard, director of space programs, assistant secretary of the Air Force (acquisition) to the House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Defense, in Washington, DC, 6 May 1992.

13. Adapted from: Space and Missile Systems Center, "Titan IV Selected Acquisition Report," (RCS:DD-COMP(Q&A)823), 31 December 1993.

14. Adapted from: Testimony by Lt. Gen. John E. Jaquish, principal deputy, assistant secretary of the Air Force (acquisition) and Maj. Gen. Donald G. Hard, director of space programs, assistant secretary of the Air Force (acquisition) to the House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Defense, in Washington, DC, 6 May 1992.


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